Recently, I started working on a new open source project (you’ll have to wait until the first release to find out what it is), and the goal of it is to play nicely with any JavaScript Library you want to use. That means it needs to work nicely with jQuery, prototype, ASP.NET AJAX and the such. This means that I need to grow all my own code for registering namespaces and using inheritance.

One major JavaScript feature that I needed a refresher on, and ultimately get figured out, is Prototypal Inheritance. Sounds fancy, right? Well, it’s actually rather simple to do, but can be a little cryptic since there isn’t much info out there that just shows you a really basic example of doing it. So, this is why I decided to write this post; to give a really simple example and explanation on JavaScript Prototypal Inheritance.

Basics of Prototypal Inheritance

First, here’s the really simple code:

FirstClass = function() {
  /// Constructor
  this.test1 = `Chris`;

FirstClass.prototype.GetTest1 = function() { return this.test1; };

SecondClass = function() {
  /// Constructor

SecondClass.prototype = new FirstClass;

SecondClass.prototype.GetTest1 = function() { return "SecondClass: " + this.test1; };

First, we have the FirstClass object defined. In the constructor we are defining and setting the objects test1 variable to Chris. Then a GetTest1 function is being defined using prototype that returns the value of the test1 variable. Now, we have a simple object that will return the test Chris when you execute the GetTest1 method.

Here’s an example of using the FirstClass object:

var a = new FirstClass();


Secondly, we have our SecondClass object, that also sets a variable named test1 and implements a GetTest1 function. This object would basically be the same, except we want to return a slightly modified string from GetTest1 instead of returning what FirstClass returns. So, for this we need to use inheritance.

The key to prototypal inheritance is, the line that reads SecondClass.prototype = new FirstClass. This basically takes a copy of FirstClass, constructor and prototype stuff, and sets SecondClass’s prototype to that. Then after we do this, then we redefine the GetTest1 method to be what we want it to be. And, now when we execute GetTest1 it will return SecondClass: Chris instead of just Chris.

Here’s an example of using the SecondClass object:

var b = new SecondClass();


Now isn’t that simple? I told you so.

Calling Base Object Methods

Now, one thing that you’re probably used to (especially if you’re used to .NET) is being able to access the Base objects version of the methods. In the example above that would be GetTest1.

To do this, we need to grab a copy of the base objects GetTest1 method within our SecondClass objects constructor. Then we can use this within our new GetTest1 method.

Here’s an example of doing this:

SecondClass = function() {
  this.base_GetTest1 = FirstClass.prototype.GetTest1;

SecondClass.prototype = new FirstClass;

SecondClass.prototype.GetTest1 = function() {
  return "SecondClass: " + this.base_GetTest1();

Using this technique, you can easily copy any logic that the Base object used within the method and reuse it within our new method. This same technique can be used for copying methods over from other objects, not only the one that our object inherits, but if you do this you need to make sure any variables and methods it calls exist in your object.